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VOLUME 56, ISSUE 3/2015

Industry 4.0 – Future of wood manufacturing – State of the art and perspective for the wood industries; Part 1

Language: German
Pages: 5 - 9
Authors: Manfred Gronalt, Alfred Teischinger

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Industry 4.0 is the vision of tomorrow's manufacturing where in intelligent factories, machines, raw materials, and products are connected by Cyber-Physical-Systems and communicate within an “Internet of things" and cooperatively drive production. Products find their way independently through the production process which enables a highly flexible, individualized and resource-friendly mass production. Based on the general state of the art of industry 4.0, which is strongly related to the automotive industries and their supply chains, some perspectives of such intelligent manufacturing systems for the wood industries are reviewed and discussed in the current paper. Part 2 will introduce some more specific potential applications in the wood industry, where complex manufacturing steps are self-organized to a flexible and efficient production system.

Wood-plastic composites from bio-based Polyamide 11 and beech fibres

Language: German
Pages: 10 - 15
Authors: Patrick Zierdt, Torsten Theumer, Andreas Weber

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There is great interest in the development of biogenic wood-plastic composites (bio-WPC) from thermoplastic bio-polymers as engineering materials with comparable or improved properties to polyolefin based composites. In this study, the reinforcement of bio-based Polyamide 11 with pulped and chipped beech fibres was investigated. In a first step, the compounding of the wood fibres with bio-based Polyamide 11 was done in a lab-scale co-kneader and followed by subsequent injection moulding of test specimens. Analysis of the fibre morphology, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties enabled the characterization of the properties of the composites. As a result, it could be shown that the higher aspect ratio of the pulped fibres resulted in an improved tensile strength. This was correlated to the higher number of hydrogen bondings between matrix and the pulped fibres due to the larger surface area.

Improvement of impregnation and fixation of preservative in spruce sapwood by heat/pressure treatment

Language: German
Pages: 16 - 20
Authors: Arno Burmester

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Spruce sapwood was treated with a chrome free wood preservative by simultaneous influence of heat and pressure. It was possible by optimal combination of heat and pressure to penetrate the wood completely. It is supposed that pit closure which is delaying impregnation was opened by heat and pressure. Further research was done regarding fixation of preservative. There is probably a substantial improvement of fixation by a final closure of pits. It is the highlight of the research result that optimal impregnation and fixation of preservative was achieved at a temperature between 60 °C and 70 °C.

Novel methods for the lifetime prediction of exterior wood coatings; Part 1: Chemiluminescence analysis

Language: German
Pages: 21 - 27
Authors: Lars Passauer, Mario Beyer

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The evaluation of the protective potential and lifetime prediction of exterior coatings can be conducted using diverse physical and chemical analysis and testing tools. In the paper chemiluminescence analysis is presented as a novel and highly sensitive testing method which allows the characterization of exterior wood coating materials in terms of their oxidative profile and stability. Chemiluminescence instruments detect the light emitted from oxidized/oxidizing samples. The light intensity is proportional to the concentration of hydroperoxides and peroxy radicals. The latter could be formed in the course of the autoxidation or photooxidation of the coatings and could initialize the photodegradation of polymeric binders and organic coating additives.

Review: Sensory and metrological quality evaluation of raw and coated wood and wood based panel surfaces

Language: German
Pages: 28 - 34
Authors: Kerstin Dekomien, Andrea Huxol, Adrian Riegel

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The article intends to contribute to the systematic quality assurance of surface coating processes. This consideration is owed to the huge gap between the quality requirements, especially those regarding appearance, and the test effort currently necessary to meet them. Coating defects cause high rework or scrap costs due to their position near the end of the value chain. Nevertheless neither the multi-stage coating processes nor the verification processes, which are still rather fragmental, achieve a level of constantly controllable quality. Available measurement devices possibly are applied only at the end of the coating process. Additionally they are not capable of detecting all important characteristics of a surface. An improvement of this situation can be anticipated in near future. A combination of the sensory evaluation and measuring systems can be an option for a comprehensive quality assessment even in early stages of the process. Furthermore controllable process quality can be achieved by defining suitable tolerances.

Review: Customer-tailored surfaces of lot size in melamine quality A short review with experimental underpinning

Language: German
Pages: 35 - 43
Authors: Monica Badila, Olivia Moser, Uwe Müller, Edith Zikulnig-Rusch, Andreas Kandelbauer

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The surface decoration of wood-based panels by digital printing can be accomplished by different instrumental means. The quality and production speed of the printing process are currently high enough to provide a cost-effective method of manufacture small lots. The interlamination of digitally printed decorative papers offers the opportunity to produce customer-tailored surfaces of lot size 1. Since the papers are not impregnated, small series can be produced flexibly and rapidly and an individual product can be achieved utilizing different digital printing infrastructure, inking system, paper quality etc. Large panels (2800 mm x 2050 mm) can be individually decorated as well. An additional advantage of this method is the improved surface performance due to employment of melamine formaldehyde resins. However, the direct digital printing on melamine-formaldehyde resin based surfaces is currently no viable alternative to the interlamination. This process could only become interesting when suitable modified UV-inks become commercially available.

Partial ecological comparison of materials on the example of a skid conveyor system; Part 2

Language: German
Pages: 44 - 48
Authors: Katrin Feig, Sven Eichhorn

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Based on part 1 of the study for partial environmental assessment of construction materials in mechanical engineering (Feig et al., 2015), the results will be translated in an example of use. The example shows two systems of skid conveyor, one out of steel, the other one out of hand wood veneer composites. Both skid conveyors are applicated

in the automotive industry (Eckardt et al., 2014). In order to assess their ecological benefits, the two systems are contrasted with each other. In order to investigate transparently the environmental impact of materials to the application, the categories of global warming potential and primary energy demand will be used. Both factors describe the sustainability and environmental friendliness most accurately. The comparison is performed for the life phase of production and is therefore only partially.

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