In mechanical engineering, the socio-political discussion on sustainability and energy efficiency generates the demand for equivalent constructions. Requested are technical solutions that offer the companies opportunities to increase their business contribution to sustainable development and to achieve economic benefits. These designs require sustainable, eco-friendly and thus “ecologically beneficial" construction materials. Selected wood materials represent one possibility for such materials. To investigate the ecological impact of these substitution materials in a transparent manner, the categories of global warming potential and primary energy demand will be used. Both factors are describing sustainability and environmental friendliness the most accurately. The analysis should clarify the ecological benefits of wood veneer composites, structural steel, galvanized steel and aluminium alloys in the life phase of production as well as with the impact categories global warming potential and primary energy consumption. Thus, the comparison of materials takes place only partially.