Thermally modified timber (TMT) has been industrial scale produced in Europe for 10 years. Four basic technologies have been established essentially: the hot air technology developed in Finland, the treatment with steam under increased pressure, the Oil-Heat-Treatment and the technology with nitrogen atmosphere. The treatment temperatures are between 160 and 230 °C. The thermal modification leads to an increased resistance against wood destroying fungi. The dimension stability is improved, the moisture uptake such as shrinking and swelling are reduced. But, the strength properties are reduced in the same way. Therefore a right choice of wood species and treatment conditions, according to the application, is necessary. The colour change is making TMT a possible substitute for tropical wood species, also in interior applications, like furniture and floorings. Actual TMT is not applicable and not recommended for load bearing applications. Thermally modified timber is a relatively new product with a specific property profile and therefore should be considered as an own wood species. Long-term experiences are available only in a small range. This is to consider by woodworking and application thermally modified timber.