The Institute for Research and Development of Musical Instruments, adjacent Institute of Dresden University of Technology, and the chair for Wood and Fibrous Materials Tech-nology of Dresden University of Technology worked on a research project on the application of thermally modified wood in musical instruments. The goal of this project was to analyse the changed physical, anatomical and chemical characteristics of modified woods and to compare them to characteristics being relevant for musical instruments. Conclusions on the possible use of these woods in musical instruments were drawn. In part 1 of this publication (Holztechnologie issue 4/2005, p. 36-42) selected anatomical and physical characteristics are described, which appear relevant for the use in musical instruments. Part 2 is concerned with technological characteristics and the production and examination of parts of musical instruments.