Chemical wood modification is a relatively novel technology to improve material properties of solid wood such as dimensional stability and resistance against wood decaying fungi and insects. The technology improves wood both with regard to already existing applications and offers the possibility to open up new fields of application by reducing several natural weak points of wood. Thus, wood gains competitiveness towards other materials such as plastics, metals and concrete. Already since the 1930th, various processes to modify wood have been developed worldwide. Several thermal and chemical modification processes of solid wood, however, have only been successfully commercialised in the last decade. This review introduces three of the most advanced processes of chemical wood modification: acetylation with acetic anhydride (Accoya®, Titan Wood,), furfurylation with furfuryl alcohol (Kebony®) and cross-linking with 1,3-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) (Belmadur®, BASF).