The article presents fundamental research and material properties of solid wood, impregnated with hot melting waxes. The article is based on a dissertation, whose fundamental results were already published in scientific journals. The hydrophobic waxes decrease the uptake of gaseous or liquid water. Furthermore, the mechanical strengths as well as hardness are partly increased significantly. In contrast to several wood modification processes, the treated wood does not become brittle. Wax impregnated wood greys and shows massive infestation by blue stain. But these effects stay limited on the surface. Generally, the resistance against basidiomycetes, soft rot and termites is improved. It has shown, that some strength properties, the impregnation process or the durability vs. xylobiont insects depends on a specific influence of the different wax types.